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Citation Styles and How to Guide

Citation Guidance

Chicago & Turabian

The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago) citation style got its start in the publishing world, but since then, it has expanded to a variety of disciplines, such as the literary arts and the sciences.  Chicago Style is currently in its 17th ed.  Click here to see an overview of the differences between the current edition and previous editions.

There are two methods of citation within the Chicago Style: author-date and notes and bibliography.  Author-date is most commonly used in the sciences and social sciences, and notes and bibliography is most commonly used in the humanities, such as literature, history, and the arts.  The most basic difference between the two is how the sources are cited in-text.

You may also hear the term Chicago Style used interchangeably with Turabian Style.  Turabian Style follows the same patterns of documentation (author-date and notes and bibliography) as the Chicago Style, but Turabian style has some slight modifications that make it appropriate for student publication styles, whereas Chicago Style provides guidelines for published works.  If you're not sure which one to use for your assignment, be sure to check with your professor!

The Chicago Manual of Style Online

MLA Citation Guide

The author-date system is typically used in the sciences and social sciences. This citation system first provides an in-text citation that consists of the author's last name followed by the year of publication. 

For example, if I were to cite to an article by Plott written in 2023, then my in-text citation would appear at the end of the sentence and be formatted as follows: (Plott 2023).  If I were citing to a direct quote within my sentence, then I would include the page number(s) of the text where the quote appears.  For a quote from page 2 of a source, an appropriate in-text citation with the accompanying page number would looks as follows: (Plott 2023, 2).

In addition to the in-text citations you should provide throughout your paper, there will also be an accompanying reference page at the end of your paper.  This reference list will contain all the references you cited within your paper in alphabetical order.  Each reference will provide full bibliographic information about the source where you pulled your information that you are citing to in your paper.

Learn how to use the CMOS's author-date system, by getting started with the links below.


Check out the below links from CMOS and the Purdue OWL to see example citations and papers that are written using the CMOS's author-date system.


The notes-bibliography system in CMOS is typically used in the humanities in subject areas such as history, literature, or the arts.  This system of citation uses numbered footnotes (these appear at the bottom of the page)  or endnotes (these appear at the end of your paper) that correspond to a raised (superscript1) in the text.  If the sources are not cited in full in the footnotes or endnotes, then there should be an accompanying bibliography that provides a full list of references in alphabetical order.


Take a look at the links below to get a better understanding of what it looks like to cite using the CMOS's notes and bibliography system.


Check out these sample citations and a sample paper using the CMOS's notes and bibliography system to see examples of what you citations should look like.


Whether you are using the author-date system or notes and bibliography system, check out the Purdue OWL's guidelines that you should follow for structuring your paper.

Take a look at these recommended resources for getting started citing with Chicago Style.